POLITICAL SCIENCE. the province of Asia. They have been divided, in respect to their relations to the supreme power at Rome, into several classes. The most privileged class was that of the free and allied cities. They were such as had freely united them- selves to the Romans by a formal league, and were but few in number. Next to the cwitates liber & et fader a tee were the liberce which derived their freedom not from a covenant but from a law or a decree of the Roman senate. This was given (to use Marquardt's expression), " as a reward for their adhesion to Rome or their voluntary submission. Being tied to the policy of Rome by their privileges, they secured the influence of the Romans in a land as yet incompletely sub- jugated." * And a motive forgiving the privilege, no doubt, was to divide the land where they lay by an inequality of , rights, so that the favored cities might dread any revolutions that would detach them from the conquering power, and the unity of the territory might be broken. The most essential of their rights were exemption from a Roman garrison, free- dom from a land tax, and jurisdiction under their own offi- cers and by their own laws, but they were generally bound to make certain payments to the Roman people. The/r^ and untaxed cities were exempt .from tribute; but another class of towns, the civitates stipendiaries were subject to taxation at the discretion of the Romans. But even these were not entirely deprived of their old institutions, of a popular assembly, of magistrates elected by a domestic senate, and to some degree of their own laws ; they were subject, however, to the interference of the provincial governors. These vari- ous conditions of the cities in conquered provinces, for the minutiae of whose rights the archaeologists must be consulted, show that the Romans pursued varying plans of policy, on the whole leaving to the cities a greater or less enjoyment of their former self-government. The same appears from the lines of kings in Asia Minor, Judaea and the remoter east, who were allowed to continue at the head of their kingdoms *u. s. iii., i, 249.